Speaking at Emory University on November 13, 2008, Dr. Wallace-Sanders considers Lost Cause monuments and memorials to the black mammy figure, responses from African-American writers and artists, and the relationship between these debates and real African-American women who cared for white children.
Southern Memory, Southern Monuments, and the Subversive Black Mammy
Question and Answer
Wallace-Sanders responds to questions about the photographs she uses, the proposed Mammy Memorial Institute, the political responses to the proposed mammy memorial in Washington DC, and the mammy figure within Lost Cause discourse.
Black Mammy Memorial Institute. The Black Mammy Memorial or peace monument, Athens, Georgia. Athens, GA: Banner Printery, ca. 1910. Located in the Manuscripts, Archives, and Rare Books Library at Emory University.
Brown, Charlotte Hawkins. An Appeal to the Heart of the South; and The Correct Thing to Do--To Say--To Wear. New York: G.K. Hall, 1995.
Johnson, Joan Marie. "Ye Gave Them a Stone": African American Women's Clubs, the Frederick Douglas Home, and the Black Mammy Monument." Journal of Women's History 17.1 (2005): 62-86.
Lefalle-Collins, Lizzetta. "Memories of Mammy." Art and the Performance of Memory: Sounds and Gestures of Recollection. Ed. Richard Cándida Smith. New York: Routledge, 2002.
McElya, Micki. Clinging to Mammy: the Faithful Slave in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Mills, Cynthia. "Commemorating the Color Line: the National Mammy Monument Controversy of the 1920s." Monuments to the Lost Cause: Women, Art, and the Landscapes of Southern Memory. Ed. Cynthia Mills and Pamela H. Simpson. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 2003.
Turner, Patricia A. Ceramic Uncles & Celluloid Mammies: Black Images and Their Influence on Culture. New York: Anchor Books, 1994.
The Mammy Project
The Mammy Project is a touring theatrical work written and performed by Michelle Matlock, that explores the stereotype and myth of mammy in contemporary United States culture.
"The Mammy Caricature." The Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia. Ferris State University.
"The Mammy Charicature" is an article about uses of the mammy figure, written by Dr. David Pilgrim.